[112], Water hyacinth is also observed to enhance nitrification in wastewater treatment cells of living technology. Water hyacinth has three flower morphs and is termed "tristylous". Physical control is performed by land-based machines such as bucket cranes, draglines, or boom or by water based machinery such as aquatic weed harvesters,[98] dredges, or vegetation shredder. Google Scholar. The water hyacinth has also appeared in Ethiopia, where it was first reported in 1965 at the Koka Reservoir and in the Awash River, where the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority has managed to bring it under moderate control at considerable cost of human labor. The flower morphs are named for the length of their pistil: long, medium and short. Bacterial fermentation of one tonne (1.1 short tons) yields 26,500 ft3 gas (600 Btu) with 51.6% methane (CH4), 25.4% hydrogen (H2), 22.1% carbon dioxide (CO2), and 1.2% oxygen (O2). An Osmose project in Cambodia is trying to fight it by having local people make baskets from it. [86] The surface of the water body where water hyacinth grows heavily is often a breeding place for mosquitoes and harmful pathogens, posing a potential threat to the health of local residents. In addition, the outbreak of water hyacinth blue and its decay stage will consume a large amount of dissolved oxygen in the water body at the same time, and the space for reproduction of underwater animals such as fish will be reduced, and even a large number of fish will die. This insect is specific to the water hyacinth and its family, and besides feeding on the plant, it introduces a secondary pathogenic infestation. [93], The chemical regulation of water hyacinths can be done using common herbicides such as 2,4-D, glyphosate, and diquat. All rights reserved. [10], Azotobacter chroococcum, a nitrogen-fixing bacteria, is probably concentrated around the bases of the petioles. London (CNN Business)With its succulent leaves and violet flowers, water hyacinth may look beautiful, but it is in fact deadly. It especially thrives in tropical areas, such as parts of Africa. Report of a panel of experts meeting, 1995, Fort Lauderdale, USA. )", "Water Hyacinth – In and Out of Your Water Garden", "Removal of Water Hyacinth Could Take Longer, Expert Says", "Seven Things You Didn't Know About Water Hyacinth", "Non-native Invasive Freshwater Plants — Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) — Technical Information", "Biological Control of Weeds — A World Catalogue of Agents and their Target Weeds", "Suppressing water hyacinth with an imported weevil", "Global diversity of true and pygmy grasshoppers (Acridomorpha, Orthoptera) in freshwater", "The Crazy, Ingenious Plan to Bring Hippopotamus Ranching to America", "Water hyacinth control in fishing waters", "The Water Garden: a quarter century of aquatics", "Report on Experiments for Destruction of the Water Hyacinth in the Waters of Florida", "How this invasive flower is taking over the Nile", "The chemical control programme against the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) It impedes access to Kisumu and other harbors. The symptoms include steady wilting of the plants and a yellow discoloration of the plant leaves that eventually leads to plant decay.[94]. An integrated water hyacinth control program on the Vaal River, in a cool, high altitude area in South Africa. Since the water hyacinths are so prolific, harvesting them for industrial use serves also as a means of environmental control. Since the plant has abundant nitrogen content, it can be used as a substrate for biogas production and the sludge obtained from the biogas. Though a study found water hyacinths of very limited use for paper production,[124] they are nonetheless being used for paper production on a small scale. Water hyacinth is a free-floating perennial aquatic plant (or hydrophyte) native to tropical and sub-tropical South America. The fragments of water hyacinth that are left behind in the water can easily reproduce asexually and cause another infestation. double its biomass in less than a fortnight. Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Water hyacinth is a perennial, free-floating aquatic plant native to tropical regions of South America, and now present on all continents except Antarctica. Third, due to the dense growth of water hyacinth blue, it brings great difficulties to fishermen and often destroys fishing gear, resulting in a large increase in fishing costs. Corpus ID: 131396536. [57], In 1956 A. philoxeroides was banned for sale or shipment in the United States, subject to a fine and/or imprisonment. §Phytoremediation below) of the waters that have become contaminated and fallen victim to algal blooming. Water hyacinth, any aquatic plant of the genus Eichhornia of the pickerelweed family (Pontederiaceae), consisting of about five species, native primarily to tropical America. [10] Vietnamese also cook the plant and sometimes add its young leaves and flower to their salads. With the help of its efficient asexual reproduction and environmental adaptation mechanisms, water hyacinth has begun to spread widely in the river basin. [32], Ironically, water hyacinths have also been introduced into waters inhabited by manatees in Florida, for the purpose of bioremediation (cf. [99] Mechanical removal is seen as the best short-term solution to the proliferation of the plant. "Buddy" Stall (1998) assured his readership that the Japanese gave each family a package of those seeds. [55], In 1910, a bold solution was put forth by the New Foods Society. In north-east India, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam the water hyacinth's stems are used as a braiding material and a source of fibers. Regardless of its problems, water hyacinth has been found to be useful for industrial, agricultural, household and environmental purposes. [56] The manatees include the water hyacinth in their diet,[56] but it may not be the food of first choice for them. Water hyacinth fibers are used as raw material for paper. Gasification of one tonne (1.1 short tons) dry matter by air and steam at high temperatures (800 °C or 1,500 °F) gives about 40,000 ft3 (1,100 m3) natural gas (143 Btu/ft3) containing 16.6% H2, 4.8% CH4, 21.7% CO (carbon monoxide), 4.1% CO2, and 52.8% N2 (nitrogen). [96] It can take almost a two-week period before mats of water hyacinth are destroyed with 2, 4-D. It also encroaches on the mangrove forests in the area, endangering the rich and fragile ecosystem. [23] Directly blamed for starving subsistence farmers in Papua New Guinea,[citation needed] water hyacinth remains a major problem where effective control programs are not in place. In New Zealand it is listed on the National Pest Plant Accord which prevents it from being propagated, distributed or sold. For the herbicide glyphosate, it has a lower toxicity than the other herbicides; therefore, it takes longer for the water hyacinth mats to be destroyed (about three weeks). Green Keeper Africa harvests the hyacinth, dries the plant and breaks it down into a loose fiber marketed as GKSORB, that can be packed into bags, pillows and "socks." The startup sources its water hyacinth from Lake Nokoué, in the southeast of the country, where the plant "is a real nuisance to local communities," says Yehounme. 109., The plant (Afrikaans: waterhiasint[62]) arguably invaded South Africa in 1910,[64][65][66] although earlier dates have been claimed.[69][g]. Expansion has been put on hold because of the pandemic, but the company plans to launch in Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire once business resumes. [c][35] The claim has been repeated by later writers, with various shifts in the details. Mechanical and chemical (herbicide) approaches to water-hyacinth control are the most widely used, for example, in Egypt and South Africa. Integrated management of water hyacinth in South Africa. The organic products can be used to soak up a range of pollutants, from motor oil to dyes and paints. However, because the life cycle of the weevils is ninety days, it puts a limitation on the use of biological predation to efficiently suppress water hyacinth growth. The temperature tolerance of the water hyacinth is the following; its minimum growth temperature is 12 °C (54 °F); its optimum growth temperature is 25–30 °C (77–86 °F); its maximum growth temperature is 33–35 °C (91–95 °F), and its pH tolerance is estimated at 5.0–7.5. Cited in, Benemann, J.R. (1981) "Energy from fresh and brackish water aquatic plants", pp. Oil-soaked stacks are incinerated, with the energy produced used to power a local cement kiln. Wolverton, B.C. such as the water hyacinth in Lake Victoria and the Harare dam. Many researchers have used water hyacinth, water lettuce and vetiver grass for the removal of water contaminants but their treatment capabilities depend on different factors like climate, contaminants of different concentrations, temperature, etc. Washington. [19] In many areas it has become an important and pernicious invasive species. In addition, a large number of water hyacinths floating in the water will block sunlight from entering the water, and after decay, it will consume a lot of dissolved oxygen in the water, pollute the water quality, and cause a large number of deaths of other aquatic plants. The effort began in the 1970s when USDA researchers released into the United States three species of weevil known to feed on water hyacinth, Neochetina bruchi, N. eichhorniae, and the water hyacinth borer Sameodes albiguttalis. Water Hyacinth is the principal aquatic weed in Africa. [47] This effect was well taking hold in the state of Louisiana by the turn of the 20th century. Globally, water hyacinth is a known invasive species that predominantly threatens the pillars of sustainability. [44][d], The Harper's Weekly magazine (1895) printed an anecdotal account stating that a certain man from New Orleans collected and brought home water hyacinths he collected from Colombia, c. 1892, and the plant proliferated in a matter of 2 years. It is, however, costly and requires the use of both land and water vehicles, but it took many years for the lake to become in poor condition and reclamation will be a continual process. Clayton J, 2000. Between 75,000 and 150,000 acres (30,000 and 61,000 ha) of water hyacinth and alligator weed are treated annually in Louisiana. Center, and D. Jianqing, eds. It is high in protein (nitrogen) and trace minerals and the goat feces are a good source of fertilizer as well. [citation needed], In May 2010, the USDA's Agricultural Research Service released Megamelus scutellaris as an additional biological control insect for the invasive water hyacinth species. [6] And in terms of plant count rather than size, they are said to multiply by more than a hundredfold in number, in a matter of 23 days. The most common type of sorbents are synthetic, he adds, but organic sorbents are beneficial because they produce waste that is less harmful to the environment. [59][60] The invasion into Egypt is dated between 1879 and 1892 by Brij Gopal. Therefore, the process is very time-intensive. Since water hyacinth is comprised up of 95% water, the evapotranspiration rate is high. Overview Information Hyacinth bean is a climbing plant that produces seeds (beans). All rights reserved. Archives of Environmental Health. The plant is extremely tolerant of, and has a high capacity for, the uptake of heavy metals, including cadmium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, lead and mercury, which could make it suitable for the biocleaning of industrial wastewater. In: Klass, D.L. In Benin, a startup is using water hyacinth to fight pollution. It was introduced in Africa around 1879, and 110 years later, established itself on the continent’s largest lake, Lake Victoria. This plant appeared in Lake Kyoga in Uganda in the early 1980s and it also occurs in Lake Kwania and down the Kyoga Nile. The aquatic plant water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was first recorded in South Africa during the early part of the 20th century.The plant has since spread across the country and is found in water bodies in both sub-tropical and temperate areas. [91] The water hyacinth would then be transferred to a dumping site and allowed to decompose which releases CO2, CH4 and nitrous oxides which would all negatively impact the air quality and contribute to global warming. Soil erosion Livestock rearing in catchment areas can contribute to soil erosion. [71] There, without any natural enemies, it has become an ecological plague, suffocating the lake, diminishing the fish reservoir, and hurting the local economies. [87], The invasion of water hyacinth also has socioeconomic consequences. Since there are no natural enemies in the new location, it can multiply quickly and cause disaster. It is a weed problem in many countries, especially in Egypt and East, West and South Africa. The use of herbicides requires strict approval from governmental protection agencies of skilled technician to handle and spray the affected areas. The weevil species were introduced into the Gulf Coast states, such as Louisiana, Texas, and Florida, where thousands of acres were infested by water hyacinth. Factset: FactSet Research Systems Inc.2018. In addition, it is more cost-effective and less laborious than mechanical control. The plant can exacerbate flooding during the rainy season, by preventing excess water from flowing into rivers and irrigation canals. 3(3):285–300. By K. Ueki and T. Kobayashi. [18], Water hyacinth has been widely introduced in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa and New Zealand. Water hyacinth is reported for its efficiency to remove about 60–80% nitrogen[113] and about 69% of potassium from water. [95] Although meeting with limited success, the weevils have since been released in more than 20 other countries. A project on Lake Victoria in Africa used various pieces of equipment to chop, collect, and dispose of 1,500 hectares (3,700 acres) of water hyacinth in a 12-month period. In India, one tonne (1.1 short tons) of dried water hyacinth yields about 50 liters ethanol and 200 kg residual fiber (7,700 Btu). The floating water-hyacinth was introduced into Florida in the 1880s and covered more than 120,000 acres of public lakes and navigable rivers by the early 1960s. [122], In various places in the world world-wide, the plant is used for making furniture, handbags, baskets, rope, and household goods/interior products (lampshades, picture frames) by businesses launched by NGOs and entrepreneurs. The high moisture content of water hyacinth, adding so much to handling costs, tends to limit commercial ventures. [30], The introduction of manatees into waterways was reportedly successful in controlling the plant's growth in Guyana. [121], In Kenya, East Africa, it has been used experimentally as organic fertilizer, although there is controversy stemming from the high alkaline pH value of the fertilizer. [102][103], Because of its extremely high rate of development, Pontederia crassipes is an excellent source of biomass. In large water areas such as Louisiana, the Kerala Backwaters in India, Tonlé Sap in Cambodia and Lake Victoria it has become a serious pest. See further down. [39] Canadian biologist Spencer C. H. Barrett (2004) meanwhile favored the theory they were first cultivated in garden ponds, after which they multiplied and escaped to the environs. Duquesne, who was born and raised in South Africa, further noted that European settlers on that continent commonly included hippopotamus, ostrich, antelope, and other African wildlife in their diets and suffered no ill effects. [97], The herbicide known as diquat is a liquid bromide salt that can rapidly penetrate the leaves of the water hyacinth and lead to immediate inactivity of plant cells and cellular processes. [32], Known as the American Hippo bill, H.R. i.e., 200 liters out of the "350 to 411 liters of biogas per kg dry weight of water hyacinths (5.7 to 6.6 scf per dry lb)" reported by this team with Barlow. [32], The plant invaded Florida in 1890,[48] and an estimated 50 kg/m2 of the plant mass choked Florida's waterways. [104] According to Curtis and Duke, one kg (2.2 lb) of dry matter can yield 370 litres (13 cu ft) of biogas, giving a heating value of 22,000 kJ/m3 (590 Btu/cu ft) compared to pure methane (895 Btu/ft3)[105], Wolverton and McDonald report approximately 0.2 m3/kg (3 cu ft/lb) methane,[h] indicating biomass requirements of 350 t/ha (160 short ton/acre) to attain the 70,000 m3/ha (1,000,000 cu ft/acre) yield projected by the National Academy of Sciences (Washington). [10] This plant is reported to contain HCN, alkaloid, and triterpenoid, and may induce itching. The extract inhibited the germination of Mimosa pigra seeds in addition to suppressing the root growth of the seedlings. Hill, T.D. Here, water hyacinth will be artificially grown in tanks and used to produce biogas for cooking and fertiliser to grow flowers. Strategies for Water Hyacinth Control. Current Distribution: The Water Hyacinth is distributed currently through North America, South America, eastern Africa, and Asia. For example, many waterways in Zhejiang and other provinces were blocked by the rapidly growing water hyacinth. Many attempts have been used to control and eliminate the water hyacinth, but they have all been unsuccessful. The products are sold in. [4] Some water hyacinths were found to grow between 2 and 5 meters (7 and 16 feet) a day in some sites in Southeast Asia. [9], Its habitat ranges from tropical desert to subtropical or warm temperate desert to rainforest zones. ), Biomass as a non-fossil fuel source. With its succulent leaves and violet flowers, water hyacinth may look beautiful, but it is in fact deadly. It then advanced by natural means to Lake Victoria where it was first sighted in 1988. [120] In Bangladesh, farmers in the southwestern region cultivate vegetables on "floating gardens" usually with a bamboo-built frame base, with dried mass of water hyacinth covered in soil as bedding. As a large portion of cultivable land goes under water for months during monsoon in this low-lying region, farmers have grown this method for many decades now. In the 1930s, water hyacinth was introduced into China as a feed, ornamental plant and sewage control plant, and it was widely planted in the south as an animal feed. They have long, spongy and bulbous stalks. The leaves are 10–20 cm (4–8 inches) across on a stem which is floating by means of buoyant bulb-like nodules at its base above the water surface. The cost of water hyacinth control in South Africa. It is used internationally for fertilizer and as animal feed. "In our experience, utilization of an invasive plant has never contributed to its control," Arne Witt, the regional coordinator for invasive species for the Center for Agriculture and Bioscience International, tells CNN Business. Thick mats of the weed impede access to fishing zones and block sunlight and oxygen from getting into the water, which depletes fish stocks. harvp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFDuke1983 (. Furthermore, the practice of mechanical harvesting is not effective in large-scale infestations of the water hyacinth, because this aquatic invasive species grows much more rapidly than it can be eliminated. An erect stalk supports a single spike of 8–15 conspicuously attractive flowers, mostly lavender to pink in colour with six petals. [40] The account gains a different detail as told by children's story-teller Carole Marsh (1992), who says "Japan gave away water hyancinth seeds" during the exposition,[41] and another Southern raconteur, Gaspar J. [7] Tristylous populations are however limited to the native lowland South America range of water hyacinth; in the introduced range, the M-morph prevails, with the L-morph occurring occasionally and the S-morph is absent altogether. In Kedah (Malaysia), the flowers are used for medicating the skin of horses. [75][76], In Bangladesh, projects have begun to utilize water hyacinth for the construction of floating vegetable gardens.[77]. This is how we maintain that 70% of body water volume. [53] An engineer charged with the spraying did not think the poison to be a matter of concern, stating that the crew of the spraying boat would routinely catch fish from their working areas and consume them. Thus NAS fellow Noel D. Vietmeyer (1975) wrote that "Japanese entrepreneurs" introduced the plant into the U. S., and the plants had been "collected from the Orinoco River in Venezuela",[36] and the claim was echoed along the same gist by a pair of NASA researchers (Wolverton & McDonald 1979), who asserted that the souvenir plants were carelessly dumped in various waterways. Cited in. The common water hyacinth has become an invasive plant species on Lake Victoria in Africa after it was introduced into the area in the 1980s. The alternative supply of biogas from the water hyacinth could replace the unsustainable use of firewood for cooking, which is a … ; McDonald, R.C. No one's sure how the South American water hyacinth invaded Africa's Lake Victoria but there's little doubt as to the damages it has caused. Since its introduction to South Africa in the early 1900s, the water hyacinth has done considerable damage to the natural environment. Beginning in the 1980s, with the rapid development of China's inland industry, the eutrophication of inland waters has intensified. The term "board of engineer officer" is used, but the biography from one of its members, in the West Point graduate roll, shows he was from the Army Corps of Engineers. Therefore, in natural waters, water hyacinth blue competes with other aquatic (floating and submerged) plants and algae for mineral nutrition, sunlight, etc. [46], As the hyacinths multiply into mats, they eliminate the presence of fish, and choke waterways for boating and shipping. In fact, it could even contribute to the weed's spread as people will see it as something they could profit from, he warns. Solm on Hartbeespoort Dam", #2932 Pontederia azurea. [30], There are various accounts as to how the water hyacinth was introduced to the United States. Health lays the foundation for vibrant and productive communities, stronger economies, safer nations and a better world. [72] By 2018, it has become a serious problem on Lake Tana in Ethiopia. [73] The water hyacinth was referred to as the "(Beautiful) Blue Devil" in Bengal, and "Bengal Terror" elsewhere in India; it was called "German weed" (Bengali: Germani pana) in Bangladesh out of belief the German Kaiser submarine mission[74] was involved in introducing them at the outbreak of World War I; and called "Japanese trouble" in Sri Lanka, due to the rumor that the British had planted them in order to entice Japanese aircraft to land on the insecure pads. The company employs a network of more than 1,000 people from local villages to help harvest the plant, 80% of whom are women, says Yehoumne. }, author={M. Byrne and M. Hill and M. P. Robertson and A. M. King and N. Katembo and John R. U. Wilson and R. Brudvig and J. Fisher and A. Jadhav}, year={2010} } In 2011, Wu Fuqin et al. [14], [15], [16],[17] In addition to heavy metals, Pontederia crassipes can also remove other toxins, such as cyanide, which is environmentally beneficial in areas that have endured gold mining operations. It is similar to changing the original food chain in the water body, thereby reducing the stability of the ecosystem in this water area. [115][116], The plant can also screen heavy metals and various other toxins from contaminated water.